Studies done over worldwide successful sportsman have shown the presence of certain genes indicating a relation between muscle structure and cardiovascular capacity.
Alpha actin which is encoded by ACTN3 gene, is one element in muscle structure and responsible for quick energy yield. Changes in ACTN3 gene influence the muscle structure and thereby the sports performance. Alterations occurring especially at 577 point of ACTN3 gene modifies the (R577X) muscle structure and it will ultimately cause a decrease in sports performance. People with this alterations produce less alpha-actin-3. Because of insufficient production of alpha-actin-3, rapid energy gain decreases, while the endurance increases.
Positive effect of ACE gene on athletic performance has been proven and changes at this region are also influential on cardiovascular capacity. As short ACE gene sequences (via deletion) result in low cardiac capacity, however people with long ACE gene region (via insertion) have higher cardiac capacity.
Nowadays , one’s cardiovascular capacity and muscle structure can be figured out by investigating ACTN3 and ACE genes. Therefore, sports performance and type of sports one has innate predisposition to achieve much better can also be predetermined.