Current developments in genetics enable geneticists to perform genetic tests on the embryo by means of in vitro fertilization (IVF) technique. This method is called as genetic diagnosis of embryo. The technique also known as pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is applied as follows; one cell and 4-6 cells are withdrawn at third and 5th days respectively from the embryos developing from the zygote such that egg and sperm are fertilized at lab conditions.
Purpose of PGT is primarily to identify chromosomal defects and diseases resulting from DNA abnormalities prior to pregnancy just at embryonic stage. Moreover; this method is applied to infertile couples attempting to IVF and PGT also makes it possible to identify the genetic defects that are more likely to occur within the embryo.
This application has been advised to those who want to have healthy kids in spite of carrying some genetic diseases or infertile couples with the help of IVF and microinjection reproductive techniques. This method is also suggested to couples carrying a higher risk of chromosomal abnormalities occurrence in their embryos.
In our center, chromosomes can be analysed to identify the chromosomal diseases using FISH technique at embryonic stage. Moreover, the study of 24 chromosome can be done by CGH and NGS methods. Again, by using molecular genetic methods; genetic diseases such as Thalassemia, Cystic Fibrosis, SMA etc can be determined. During IVF application, healthy embryos can be identified in addition to determination of HLA and Rh genotypes in embryos.