Studies have revealed some polymorphisms related to reduction in bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk. Today, Collagen Type 1, vitamin D, estrogen and calcitonin receptor gene regions are validated as polymorphic sites.

These polymorphisms play important roles to predetermine clinical course of the disease and to determine effective supportive treatments. These differences comprise 6 distinct polymorphisms at 4 different gene regions and they are also important marks to design proprietary treatments.